The Languages

48 Language Bird Dictionary of the Western and Central Palaearctic Region

Version 4.0 – April 2019 – Additional language: Northern Sami (Davvisámegiella) (se)

Compiled by: Ruurd Jorritsma

Site produced by: Joost de Rooy

The Languages

The 48 languages of this dictionary are listed below with their international two-letter language code ISO 639-1, followed by the name of the language in the language itself, followed by the name of the language in English. The sources of the bird names are mentioned for each language. The relevant species lists are indicated as well.

Avionary consistently uses one initial capital for the bird names in all languages, with the exception of English and some of the Celtic languages, which use capitals for each word. Most languages in practice use only lower case names, on the principle that bird names are by their nature generic names, not individual or proper names. In several languages, the use of capitals in bird names varies according to habits or authorities.several

la – Latina – Latin

The scientific language. As for the choice between synonyms, see “Taxonomy”.

af – Afrikaans

The bird names include those of the “Voëllys” of BirdLife Suid-Afrika of 2018, compiled  by the Afrikaanse Voëlnaamgroep (AVNG). For some species outside the South African region names based on analogy are given. The available names in Afrikaans are also listed on the relevant species list B, together with sister West Germanic languages: la/de/nl/fy/af.

bg – Български – Bulgarian

The “List of the Birds Recorded in Bulgaria” of the Bulgarian National Rarities Committee, 2nd Edition of December 2014, kindly provided by Petar Iankov of the Bulgarian Society for the Protection of Birds (BSPB), forms the basis of the Bulgarian names. Further names were provided by Tanyo Michev of Central Laboratory of General Ecology (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences) and by Ivaylo Angelov of the BSPB. The available Bulgarian names are also listed on the relevant species list F, together with other South Slavic languages: la/hr/sr/mk/bg.

 

br – Brezhoneg – Breton

Thanks go to Périg Herbert (†) and the Servij ar Brezhoneg. Updates and many additions were kindly provided by Divi Kervella (Office de la langue bretonne). The available names in Breton are also listed on the relevant species list A, together with English and some sister Celtic languages: la/en/ga/cy/br.

ca – Català – Catalan

Catalan names for the non-passerines are based on the Termcat database (http://www.termcat.cat/ca/Diccionaris_En_Linia/233/Presentacio); elaborated by Aymí; Cebrian; Clavell; Giménez, and Mascarell. For the passerines, the Avibase names were generally followed. Originally Catalan names were provided by Francesc Llimona and Eloisa Matheu of the Universitat de Barcelona. Checks, additions and corrections were provided by Jordi Clavell and his colleagues of the ‘Comissió dels Noms dels Ocells en Català’.
The Catalan names are also listed on the relevant species list D, together with sister Ibero-Romance languages: la/pt/gl/es/ca.

cs – Český – Czech

Czech bird names were originally given by František Hanak of the Moravská Ornitologická Stanice and Karel Šťastný. Additional names and checks originate from the ‘Biolib’ database edited by Ondřej Zicha (www.biolib.cz). The Czech names are also listed on the relevant species list E, together with sister Slavic languages: la/pl/sk/cs/sl.

cy – Cymraeg – Welsh

Welsh names were provided and partly coined by Ted Breeze Jones and resulted in the ‘Rhestr o Adar Ewrop’ (1996). Further names were provided by Davyth Fear, with the cooperation of Peter Hope Jones, Iestyn Harris, Rhys Jones, Twm Elias and Bruce Griffiths. Davyth also intermediated in providing names in Breton, Manx, Scottish Gaelic and Cornish. The available Welsh names are also listed on the relevant species list A, together with English and some sister Celtic languages: la/en/ga/cy/br.

da – Dansk – Danish

These are from the “Vest Palæarktiske Fugle”, 5. Udgave, Nov. 2018, of Jon Fjeldså, Svend Rønnest and Mogens Behnke-Pedersen of the Navnegruppe of the Dansk Ornitologisk Forening (DOF). For birds outside the West Palaearctic, the names are from ‘Danske navne på alverdens fugle’ (2008, revised 2010), also by DOF’s Navnegruppe. Predecessors of the members of the Navnegruppe who directly provided Danish names were Bent Pors Nielsen and the late Lasse Kreutzfeldt. The Danish names are also listed on the relevant species list I, together with other North Germanic languages: la/sv/da/no/is/fo.

de – Deutsch – German

Names in German are based on those provided by Peter H. Barthel (Limicola; Vögel Europas Nordafrikas und Vorderasiens, Svensson et al., 1999, and Deutsche Artenliste, 2005) and further on the Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. A complete world list of the Kommission Deutsche Namen für die Vögel der Erde (chaired by Peter Barthel), originally foreseen for 2017, is awaited. The German names are also listed on the relevant species list B, together with sister West Germanic languages: la/de/nl/fy/af.

en – English – English

The British Birds (BB) list of Western Palaearctic Birds of January 2018 is followed. Where the names of the IOC World Bird List (Gill et al.), or occasionally of the Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, or American names (American Ornithological Union) are different, these are presented as synonyms. For taxa not occurring on the BB list, the IOC names are given. Where the only difference is the spelling of “Grey” (British) vs. “Gray” (American), the latter is not mentioned separately. The English names are also listed on the relevant species list A, together with the most important Celtic languages: la/en/ga/cy/br.

el – Ελληνικά – Greek

Greek names were collected by George I. Handrinos (Hellenic Ornithological Society). Several additional names were coined in consultation with him. The available Greek names are also listed on the relevant species list J, together with Turkish, Albanian, Maltese and Basque: el/tr/sq/mt/eu.

eo – Esperanto – Esperanto

The basis of the Esperanto names is the ‘Komunlingva Nomaro de Eŭropaj Birdoj’ (1970) of the Nomenklatura Komisiono de la Ornitologia Rondo Esperantlingva, chaired by Mr. R.H. Bossong, subsequently enlarged as the ‘Komunlingva Nomaro de la Okcidentpalearktaj Birdoj’ (1989, 1995) by Ruurd Jorritsma. Additional names were coined following the guidelines of the Nomenklatura Komisiono or taken from the Esperanto wikipedia. The available names in Esperanto are also listed on the relevant species list G, together with Ukrainian, Russian and Hungarian: la/uk/ru/hu/eo.

es – Español – Spanish

The ‘Nombres en castellano de las aves del mundo’ of the Sociedad Española de Ornitología are followed, the last additions being kindly provided by Eduardo de Juana (Universidad Complutense de Madrid). Some additional names stem from Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. The Spanish (Castilian) names are also listed on the relevant species list D, together with sister Ibero-Romance languages: la/pt/gl/es/ca.

et – Eesti – Estonian

Estonian names originate from Eerik Leibak and Vilju Lilleleht, after previous contributions by the late Heinrich Veromann. Most of the Estonian names of the birds of the world, elaborated by Eerik Leibak and the Eesti Linnunimetuste Komisjoni are published on www.eoy.ee/node/11. The available Estonian names are also listed on the relevant species list H, together with Finnish, Northern Sami and the Baltic languages: la/lt/lv/et/fi/se.

eu – Euskera – Basque

Miel Loinaz (UZEI: Basque Centre for Terminology and Linguistics) and Josetxo Riofrio (ARANZADI) provided Basque names and helped in developing new names. The available Greek names are also listed on the relevant species list J, together with Greek, Turkish, Albanian and Maltese: la/el/tr/sq/mt/eu.

fi – Suomen – Finnish

Finnish names are those of the “Maailman lintulajien suomenkieliset nimet” of February/July 2018, by Harri Högmander, Heidi Björklund, Jukka Hintikka, Juhani Lokki, Jan Södersved and William Velmala of BirdLife Suomi. The Finnish names are also listed on the relevant species list H, together with Northern Sami, Estonian and the Baltic languages: la/lt/lv/et/fi/se.

fo – Føroyskt – Faroese

Faroese bird names were kindly provided by the late Prof. Dorete Bloch of the Faroese Museum of Natural History. The available Faroese names are also listed on the relevant species list I, together with other North Germanic languages: la/sv/da/no/is/fo.

fr – Français – French

These are the ‘Noms français des oiseaux du Monde’ as distributed by the ‘Commission internationale des noms français des oiseaux (CINFO)’ of Pierre Devillers and his colleagues, Ouellet, Benito-Espinal, Beudels, Cruon, David, Érard, Gosselin and Seutin, accessible at www.ona.vu/cinfo/. In the past, Mr. J-F. Voisin also provided names directly. The French names are also listed on the relevant species list C, together with sister Romance languages: la/fr/it/rm/ro.

fy – Frysk – Frisian

Frisian names are basically those of J. Boersma: It Wylde Fûgelt: List fan Fryske Fûgelnammen, 1981/1994. Additional names are provided, many of them for the first time in Avionary version 3.2. The available Frisian names are also listed on the relevant species list B, together with sister Germanic languages: la/de/nl/fy/af.

ga – Gaeilge – Irish

Tomás de Bhaldraithe (†) and Diarmaid O’hAirt of the Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann (Royal Irish Academy) provided Irish names including many new names. A more recent review and extension was kindly provided by Éamon de Buitléar († 2013) and Diarmaid O’hAirt. The available Gaelic names are also listed on the relevant species list A, together with English and some sister Celtic languages: la/en/ga/cy/br.

gd – Gaidhlig – Scots Gaelic

Kindly provided by Davyth Fear. The available names in Scottish Gaelic are also listed on the a reduced species list K, together with some sister Celtic languages, English and Luxemburgish: la/en/gd/gv/kw/lb.

gl – Galego – Galician

The names originate from “Os nomes galegos das aves” of A Chave. The 3rd edition thereof (2018) was elaborated in cooperation between A Chave (Silverio Cerradelo and co-workers) and Avionary, and is available on https://achave.gal/wp-content/uploads/achave_osnomesgalegosdas_aves_2018.pdf. The Galician names are also listed on the relevant species list D, together with sister Ibero-Romance languages: la/pt/ga/es/ca.

gv – Gaelg vanninagh – Manx

A thoroughly revised and extended list of Manx bird names was kindly provided by Chris Sheard, of the Manx Heritage Foundation, after previous contributions of Philip Gawne and Paul Helps. The available Manx names are also listed on the a reduced species list K, together with some sister Celtic languages, English and Luxemburgish: la/en/gd/gv/kw/lb.

hrHrvatski – Croatian

Goran Sušić, Dragan Radović and Jelena Kralj of the Hrvatska Akademija Znanosti I Umjetnosti provided the Croatian names. Major extensions were kindly provided recently by Jelena Kralj. The Croatian names are also listed on the relevant species list F, together with other South Slavic languages: la/hr/sr/mk/bg.

hu – Magyar – Hungarian

Hungarian names were given by László Haraszthy, of the Országos Környezetés Természetvédelmi Hivatal Madártani Intézet (Budapest). Some Wikipedia names were added. The available Hungarian names are also listed on the relevant species list G, together with Ukrainian, Russian and Esperanto: la/uk/ru/hu/eo.

is – Íslenska – Icelandic

Mr. Ævar Petersen of the Náttúrufræðistofnun Íslands provided and updated the Icelandic names. Some further names are provided by Gunnlaugur Pétursson. The available Icelandic names are also listed on the relevant species list I, together with other North Germanic languages: la/sv/da/no/is/fo.

it – Italiano – Italian

Names are essentially those of Lista Ornitica del Paleartico Occidentale of the EBN Italia by Gianluigi Castelli, Pietro D’Amelio and Marcel Haas, Version 2016. Names not appearing on the Lista Ornitica originate from the Italian world lists of Massa et al. (2000), Violani et al. (2006). The Italian names are also listed on the relevant species list C, together with sister Romance languages: la/fr/it/rm/ro.

kw – Kernewek – Cornish

Thanks go to Brian Webb. The available Cornish names are also listed on the a reduced species list K, together with some sister Celtic languages, English and Luxemburgish: la/en/gd/gv/kw/lb.

lb – Lëtzebuergesch – Luxemburgish

Names were kindly provided by Patric Lorgé of the Lëtzebuerger Natur- a Vulleschutzliga (LNVL). The available names in Luxemburgish are also listed on the a reduced species list K, together with English and some of the Celtic languages: la/en/gd/gv/kw/lb.

lt – Lietuvių – Lithuanian

The original source of the Lithuanian names was Liutauras Raudonikis. Further work was done by members of the Lietuvos Ornitologų Draugija. The present names essentially correspond to those of the book “Paukščių Pavadinimų Žodynas” by Mečislovas Žalakevičius and Irena Žalakevičienė (2009). The Lithuanian names are also listed on the relevant species list H, together with Latvian, Estonian, Finnish and Northern Sami: la/lt/lv/et/fi/se.

lv – Latviešu – Latvian

Latvian names are essentially those of Holarktikas Putnu Nosaukumi, the Holarctic list of Māris Strazds, Jānis Boumanis and Kaspars Funts (2014), adopted by the Latvijas Ornitoloģias Biedrība, with some additions. Jānis Boumanis and Māris Strazds provided the original names for Avionary. The available Latvian names are also listed on the relevant species list H, together with Lithuanian, Estonian, Finnish and Northern Sami: la/lt/lv/et/fi/se.

mk – Македонски – Macedonian

Macedonian names are those of the list of the Macedonian Ecological Society (Македонско Еколошко Друштво, MES), kindly provided by Metodija Velevski. The available Macedonian names are also listed on the relevant species list F, together with other South Slavic languages: la/hr/sr/mk/bg.

mt – Malti – Maltese

Maltese bird names were given by Joe Sultana, Ornithological Society of Malta. The available Maltese names are also listed on the relevant species list J, together with Greek, Turkish, Albanian and Basque: la/el/tr/sq/mt/eu.

nl – Nederlands – Dutch

Names of the Dutch Checklist of the Western Palaearctic of the Dutch Birding Association, 2017, are presented. Other species follow ‘Lijst van alle vogelsoorten van de wereld’ by Kees Roselaar in ‘Geïllustreerde Encyclopedie van de Vogels’ (1994), with a few exceptions. A general exception is made for names containing proper names: according to general Dutch language principles, these are written in one word, e.g. ‘Audouinmeeuw’ rather than ‘Audouins meeuw’. The Dutch names are also listed on the relevant species list B, together with sister Germanic languages: la/de/nl/fy/af.

no – Norsk – Norwegian

Norwegian names are provided by the ‘Norsk Navnekomité for Fugl’ of the Norsk Ornitologisk Forening (NOF) by Morten Bergan Per Ole Syvertsen, O.B. Hansen, H. Kvam, V. Ree and Ø. Syvertsen. The updated NOF “Verdensliste” was released in December 2017 with additions published in December 2018. The Norwegian names are also listed on the relevant species list I, together with other North Germanic languages: la/sv/da/no/is/fo.

pl – Polski – Polish

Tadeusz Stawarczyk, Paweł Mielczarek and Włodzimierz Cichocki originally provided the Polish names. The updated world list ‘Kompletna lista ptaków świata’ (update of August 2018) of Paweł Mielczarek and M. Kuziemko is used for Avionary and is accessible on the internet (www.eko.uj.edu.pl/listaptakow). The Polish names are also listed on the relevant species list E, together with sister Slavic languages: la/pl/sk/cs/sl.

pt – Português – Portuguese

Names are from ‘Nomes Portugueses das Aves do Paleárctico Ocidental’ by Hélder Costa and colleagues (2000) of the Sociedade Portuguesa para o Estudo das Aves (SPEA). Names of birds occurring in Brazil, and not regularly in Portugal, are from the Lista das Aves do Brasil of the Comité Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos (2015). The Portuguese list of Avionary was completed with the help of Messrs. Hélder Costa and Joaquim Muchaxo of SPEA. The orthography of SPEA was followed (consistent hyphenation; no capitals inside names). The available Portuguese names are also listed on the relevant species list D, together with sister Ibero-Romance languages: la/pt/ga/es/ca.

rm – Rumantsch – Romansh (Rhaeto-romance)

The names are “Rumantsch Grischun”, i.e. standardised Romansh, which may have slight deviations in the various dialects (Sursilvan, Sutsilvan, Surmiran, Putèr, Vallader). The names were provided by the Lia rumantscha, Servetsch da translaziun – Daniel Telli, Carin Coray, Angela Schmed – and recently considerably extended in cooperation between Lia Rumantscha and Avionary. The available Romansh names are also listed on the relevant species list C, together with sister Romance languages: la/fr/it/rm/ro.

ro – Română – Romanian

The basic Romanian list was provided by Victor Ciochia of the Societatea de Ornitologie, Protecţia Păsărilor şi a Naturii din România. Corrections were taken from the list of the Asociaţia pentru Protecţia Păsărilor şi a Naturii “Milvus Group”. The available Romanian names are also listed on the relevant species list C, together with sister Romance languages: la/fr/it/rm/ro.

ru – Русский – Russian

Russian names are those of Vladimir E. Flint’s ‘Slovarj Nazvanij Zhivotnykh – Ptyci’ (Vocabularium Nominum Animalium – Aves). The Russian names are also listed on the relevant species list G, together with Ukrainian, Hungarian and Esperanto: la/uk/ru/hu/eo.

se – Davvisámegiella – Northern Sami

The bird names in the language of the Northernmost part of Scandinavia are derived from “Nordsamiske fuglenavn / Davvisámegiela loddenamat” compiled by Magne Husby and Per M. Vars of the Høgskolen i Nord-Trøndelag, Norway, Utredning 141, available at https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/handle/11250/275168?show=full, with some extensions. The Northern Sami names are listed on the relevant species list H, together with Finnish, Estonian and the Baltic languages: la/lt/lv/et/fi/se.

sk – Slovenský – Slovak

Slovak bird names are those of the Slovak world list “Odporúčané slovenské názvoslovie vtákov” by Peter Kovalik, Samuel Pačenovský and Miroslav Čapek, update of October 2016. Originally, Slovak names were provided by Branislav Matoušek of the Slovenské Národné Múzeum. The Slovak names are also listed on the relevant species list E, together with sister Slavic languages: la/pl/sk/cs/sl.

sl – Slovenščina – Slovenian

Janez Gregori of the Prirodoslovni muzej Slovenije provided the Slovenian names. Further additions were kindly presented by Jurij Hanzel, chair of the Slovenian rarities committee of the Društvo za Opazovanje In Proučevanje Ptic Slovenije (DOPPS, Birdlife SI), on proposals from Avionary. The available Slovenian names are also listed on the relevant species list E, together with West Slavic languages: la/pl/sk/cs/sl.

sq – Shqip – Albanian

Grigor Jorgo, Museum of Natural Sciences, Tiranë, kindly provided the Albanian bird names. The available Albanian names are also listed on the relevant species list J, together with Greek, Turkish, Maltese and Basque: la/el/tr/sq/mt/eu.

sr – Srpski/Српски – Serbian

The Serbian names are those of the “Srpska Nomenklatura I & II” of Vasić, V.F., Simić, D.V., et al. (2004-2005), kindly provided by Dragan Simić, with further information. Additional were provided by Željko Stanimirović. The available Serbian names are also listed on the relevant species list F, together with other South Slavic languages: la/hr/sr/mk/bg.
Serbian uses both the Cyrillic and the Latin alphabet. Avionary uses the Latin alphabet; the corresponding Cyrillic letters are as follows: a (а), b (б), c (ц), č (ч), ć (ћ), d (д), dž (џ), đ (ђ), e (е), f (ф), g (г), h (х), i (и), j (ј), k (к), l (л), lj (љ), m (м), n (н), nj (њ), o (о), p (п), r (р), s (с), š (ш), t (т), u (у), v (в), z (з), ž (ж). Thus, Guska glogovnjača (Anser fabalis) is in Cyrillic: Гуска глоговњача.

sv – Svenska – Swedish

Swedish names stem originate from “Namnlistan över alla världens fågelarter”, version 8, October 2018, elaborated by the Taksonomikommitté of the Svenska Ornitologiska Förening (SOF) (Erling Jirle, Tommy Tyrberg, Johan Fromholtz, Markus Lagerkvist). Previous contributions came from i.a. Mr. Nils Kjéllen. The Swedish names are also listed on the relevant species list I, together with other North Germanic languages: la/sv/da/no/is/fo.

tr – Türkçe – Turkish
Turkish names were provided by Güneşin Aydemir and established by Sancar Baris, Can Bilgin, Serhan Oksay, Serhan Goksu, Asaf Ertan, Guven Eken, Ali Demirsoy and Ilhami Kızıroglu at the Doğal Hayati Koruma Derneği (Society for Conservation of Nature in Turkey) with occasional additions from Mr. Oksay and from the Turkish list published in Wikipedia. The available Turkish names are also listed on the relevant species list J, together with Greek,  Albanian, Maltese and Basque: la/el/tr/sq/mt/eu.

uk – Україньска – Ukrainian

The Ukrainian names are those of the recent book ‘Vitchyzniana nomenklatura ptakhiv svitu’ (2018) of Hennady V. Fesenko of the Zahidnoukraïns’ke Ornitologičke Tovarystvo (West-Ukrainian Ornithological Society”. Further names, especially recent and potential splits, were elaborated through fruitful personal communication with Mr. Fesenko. Ukrainian names were originally provided by Igor Gorban of Lviv State University, who sadly passed away in 2017.
Ukrainian consistently uses two-word names for species (exceptionally one-word names for one-species families), and three-word names for subspecies. Where the (sub)species status in not settled, Avionary adds a middle word in parentheses, which applies if the taxon is considered as a subspecies, while it is to be left out for species status. The Ukrainian names are also listed on the relevant species list G, together with Russian, Hungarian and Esperanto: la/uk/ru/hu/eo.with